The purpose of the study was to reveal immunohistochemical features of the ovaries structure in the fetuses in different gestational periods from mothers with physiological pregnancy. Material and methods. The study material was the ovaries of fetuses from the mothers with a physiological pregnancy. All fetuses died intranatal and antenatal. The cause of the death of the fetuses was an acute disorder of the utero-placental and placental-fetal circulation. In accordance with the main stages of the formation of ovaries in fetuses, all the material was divided into the following subgroups: 21-28 weeks, 29-36 weeks and 37-42 weeks of gestation. All ovaries were cortical and cerebral. Cortical substance prevails in the structure of the organ. In the period from 21 to 42 weeks, the main parameters of the ovaries increase and reach the physiological norm. Each ovary was cut into three pieces in such a way that all the components of the body were in the object. The material was fixed on a buffer neutral solution of formalin, then transferred to alcohol and poured into paraffin. On the microtome of the manufactured blocks, sections were cut in thickness of 3-5 microns, which carried to 70% of alcohol, and then to water. After complete melting, the slices were glued to the glass. To establish the relative volumes of the main elements in the ovaries, we used the Avtandilov method of "fields". The study of preparations that were stained with histological methods, as well as a morphometric study, were performed on a microscope of Olympus BX-41 using Olympus Db-soft programs (Version 3: 1). Immunohistochemical study was carried out by direct Koons method and peroxidase method. The direct Koons method in the modification of M. Brosman carried out an immunohistochemical study using MKA to collagen I, III and IV types, to endothelin-1 and CD 95 (Chemicon International Inc., Temecula California). Results and discussion. We detected collagens of types 3 and 4 in the structure of the connective tissue of the basement membranes of the follicles. Moreover, type 4 collagen prevailed. With an increase in gestational age, the intensity of luminescence of type 4 collagen increased in the basement membranes of the ovarian follicles of the fetus. In the ovaries of the fetuses from 21 to 42 weeks of gestation, there is a physiological death of the eggs. This is confirmed by a decrease in the number of eggs and an increase in the number of apoptotic modified cells. In the connective tissue composition of the main organ’s components, collagens of types 1 and 3 are determined. Moreover, with an increase in the period of gestation, the intensity of luminescence of type 1 collagen increased while the intensity of luminescence of type 3 collagen decreased. Collagen type 4 predominated in the walls of blood vessels. Collagen type 3 was defined as a weak glow. We established the level of endothelin production in vessels of the arterial and venous types. It was higher in the vessels of the venous type than in vessels of the arterial type. The immunohistochemical method established the level of hormonal activity of the ovaries of the fetuses. Estrogen production was enhanced by the end of pregnancy. Progesterone production appeared between 37-42 weeks. Conclusions. The described features of the structure of the ovaries correspond to the physiological norm and can be used to study the characteristics of the structure of the ovaries of fetuses from mothers with a complicated pregnancy.
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