ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 23 of 45
JMBS 2018, 3(4): 124–127
Clinical Medicine

Gait – Pathology or Physiology

Fedotov V. V.

The study presents the research of some mechanisms of human gait formation, and their clinical significance. The studies were performed in 4 patients with Parkinson's disease, 5 patients suffering from ischemic stroke, 4 patients with peroneal nerve neuropathy, and 2 patients with myopathy. The comparison group involved 7 healthy volunteers. 15 patients and 7 healthy volunteers, who were the control group, investigated the electromyographic and biomechanical features of the gait. In addition, interesting features of the footwear soles of these patients are also given. The article states that in all patients, with the exception of volunteers, the data of electromyography have shown the pathological process at different parts of the gait formation in a person. The nature of the changes was different and has shown the defect of some anatomical structure involved in the act of walking or biochemical defect. The inclination of the pelvis also depends on the patient's pathological condition. The study of footwear soles showed that the peculiarity also depends on a person’s gait and testifies to his physical and mental health. A high-frequency, high-amplitude curves were recorded during muscle contraction in healthy volunteers. There were recorded "firing" of spindle-shaped escalation of the potentials amplitude and subsequent decrease in patients with Parkinson's disease. In patients with myopathy, the amplitude and duration of potentials were reduced. The singular potentials irregular in amplitude and frequency were recorded in patients with peroneal nerve neuropathy. Generally, all electromyograms were characterized by low amplitude activity. Only one patient had “full bioelectric activities absence”, talked about the death of most nerve fibers and the depression of bioelectric activity of the muscles. In accordance with biomechanical examination in the vertical position, the vertebral-pelvic balance is regulated by the neuromuscular system, which minimizes the work of the muscles to maintain a vertical posture. The violations in the system of neuromuscular transmission also change the parameters of the vertebral-pelvic balance – the PI score may also be important in the diagnosis in patients with gait abnormalities. The conclusions present that the person’s gait is being individual and absolutely unique. It testifies both to health, and about a possible pathology. The type of pathological gait depends on which links of the locomotor chain has suffered: corticospinal tract, extrapyramidal system, musculoskeletal system. In setting the correct diagnosis in the presence of a pathological gait, the main place belongs to the clinical examination, as well as electromyography and biomechanical examinations.

Keywords: gait, electromyography, corticospinal tract, biomechanical examination

Full text: PDF (Eng) 233K

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