ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 33 of 39
JMBS 2017, 2(6): 157–163

The Prevalence of Secondary Dental Deformations in the Age Aspect and their Features

Doroshenko S. I., Fedorova O. V., Irkha S. V., Hermanchuk S. M.

Despite the significant development of modern dentistry, in the orthopedic practice, the problem of treatment and rehabilitation of patients with partial defects in dentition, which is complicated by secondary dental-maxillary deformities, remains very relevant. A large number of clinical studies indicate that in violation of the dentition integrity, or significant carious lesions of the occlusive surface of the teeth, secondary dental and maxillary deformities are observed, which initially lead to negative functional changes, and subsequently cause disturbance of all elements of the tooth-jaw machine. It has been established that the loss of antagonist teeth causes various changes in the morphological and metabolic nature in patients of any age. Significant changes in occlusion may outweigh the adaptive and remodeling options, especially with patient age. The aim of the research is to study the prevalence of hypertension in patients of different age groups and the peculiarities of their manifestation. In order to study the prevalence and to determine the characteristic disorders in the dento-jaw machine, we have been conducting an examination of patients aged 18 to 60 years who applied for assistance to the Department of Orthopedic Dentistry and Orthodontics and 3rd -5th -year students of the Faculty of Dentistry. Materials and Methods. During the examination, the method of system group selection was used to cover the key age groups of the population. A specially designed map of the primary dental examination of the patient was used to evaluate and analyze the obtained data. Results and Discussion. The 1st group comprised 123 persons aged from 18 to 25 years, mostly 3rd -5th years students. Only 16 (13,01%) of them had dental rows; 88 (71.54%) had teeth defects, most of which were due to caries (85 - 96.59%); 3 patients were injured (3.41%), the vast majority of them were restored, but 16 (13.01%) of young people had unrecovered defects in teeth, and in 14 (11, 38%) we determined unsatisfactory restoration of the occlusive surface of the masticatory group of teeth or orthopedic structures, which did not accurately restore their anatomical form, representing 46.67% of all that needed recovery. The total number of examined, requiring restoration was 30 people (24,39%). During the examination of persons in the first age group (18-25 years old), signs of dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint were observed in 21 (21,88%) of the examined, 16 (13,01%) of which had defects. These defects were on the background of both orthognathic and various pathological occlusions, namely: in the 1st (0.81%) with integral tooth rows and orthognathic bite, but in the presence of significant violations of the occlusive surface of the molars, 4 (3.25%) with pathological types of bites. In 16 (13,01%) patients, there was a violation of the excursion of the movements of the mandible at the opening of the mouth: 4 (3.25%) people in the form of deflection, 12 (9,76%) - deviations, and 3 (2.44%) there was a forced position of the lower jaw. At palpation of different groups of masticator muscles 11 (8.94%) persons had painful sensations in lateral winged and chewing muscles were revealed. Conclusions. Untimely compensation of defects in teeth and dentitions, as well as inferior regeneration, are the main causes of the development, the prevalence of which remains rather high, and according to our research, it makes up 41.42% among all surveyed. The results of the conducted research indicate the need for timely replacement of defects in teeth and dentitions, especially in young people, even with a few small defects in the dentition, as well as a comprehensive approach to the planning of orthopedic treatment in patients to prevent more profound changes in morphological and functional nature in the tooth-jaw machine.

Keywords: dentistry, secondary dentocephalic deformation, loss of teeth

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