Tartrazine (E102) is widely used to provide yellow color in the production of beverages, confectionery, yogurt, desserts. This dye is widely used in the manufacture of medical and hygiene products. The aim of the study was to establish the features of the morpho-functional state in rats that used tartrazine (E102) for a long time on the basis of studying the biochemical parameters of blood, urine and kidney tissue, reflecting the functional state of the kidneys, and morphological studies of the kidneys. The experiments were performed on female Wistar. At the age of 2 months the rats began to receive 1 ml of a 0.1% solution of tartrazine first intragastrically through the probe, and then adding to their food every day for 6 months, which corresponds to the regulations – up to 7.5 mg/kg of body weight per day. The controls (intact animals of the same age) received dips of 1 ml of saline. A wide biochemical study of the blood serum, urine, kidney tissue and histological examination of the kidney tissue were performed using histochemical, immune histochemical and morphometric techniques. The data of the carried out researches testify that in female rats aged 8 months, which received tartrazine with food for 6 months, the body weight and the relative mass of the kidneys were less than in the controls. In the blood plasma of the animals of the main group, the level of urea was significantly increased (Kgr 5.52 ± 0.37, Ogr 7.69 ± 0.42, p <0.01) and creatinine (Kgr 91.55 ± 6.78, Ogr 112.34 ± 7.89, p <0.01), and protein content was at the level of the control group. In the urine of the main group, the content of protein, urea, creatinine and glucosaminoglycans was significantly increased by 20-80% of the Kgr level, which may indicate an increased level of proteolysis in the body. The content of lipid peroxidation products (malonic dialdehyde and diene conjugates) in females of the main group was lower than in the controls, and activity catalase and superoxide dismutase (AOC components) was significantly higher than in the controls. In females of the main group, activation of glycolysis enzymes (by 60-100%) took place, which was observed in parallel with decreasing ATP content (by 60%), thus confirming the assumptions of a decrease in the tissue respiration intensity. Such changes in the energy metabolism may by associated with the destabilization of mitochondrial membranes. Morphological study in this experiment demonstrated that the kidneys of the animals in the controls had some histological signs of lesion and regeneration, which was due to the age of the rats (8 months). In the rats of the main group, in which of tartrazine solution with food was used for 6 months, the signs of a more significant lesion were revealed. The glomeruli varied greatly in size; they were reduced or sclerosed as well as compensatory hypertrophied. The basal membrane of the capillaries was thickened to such an extent that the capillaries did not contract. In general, a significant number of glomerular capillaries had IgG on the basal membrane. Mesangium looked enlarged, denser, contained more macrophages and lymphocytes, contained IgG deposits. The proximal tubules epithelium did not have a SHIK-positive brush border, or it was low and pale. Many of the tubular epitheliocytes were preaptopically altered. When staining for halocyanin according to Einarson, numerous apoptotic bodies could be seen, both in the glomeruli and in the tubular epithelium. The area of the nuclei of the epithelial cells of the proximal tubules and the optical density of the cytoplasm when staining for halocyanin according to Einarson, displaying the RNA content, were significantly reduced. Stroma was diffusely enriched by macrophages, lymphocytes, fibrocytes. There was pronounced perivascular sclerosis. Thus, a long-term (6 months) consumption of an adequate dose of tartrazine E102 in the experiment leads to the development of nephropathy with immune lesions of both the glomeruli and the tubulo-interstitial kidney component. Simultaneously biochemical and biochemical-functional studies convincingly demonstrate formation of nephropathy, which can be called tartrazine nephropathy.
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