ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 26 of 41
JMBS 2017, 2(5): 127–131
Medical rehabilitation

Postural Postures’ Influence on Autonomous Modulations of Vegetative Nervous System of the Elderly

Pozmogova N.

The problem of finding ways to improve the specific life expectancy of a person is an acute issue all over the world. During the biological age increasing, number of people has significant deviations from normal postural condition of the body. The respiratory heart’s arrhythmia is one of the functional indicators that reflect the coherence of the most important body systems’ work, such as: respiratory and cardiovascular. The more severe respiratory arrhythmia is, the smaller biological age of a person. Indicator of the heart rate variability determines the work of vegetative nervous system and is associated with cardiovascular and nervous diseases. It was suggested that the results of respiratory arrhythmia changes caused by physical exercises depend on the body position and it is possible to distinguish between changes induced by physical activity in the parasympathetic and sympathetic section by measuring the parameters in different postures of the body. The purpose of the study was to reveal the influence of static postures in dynamics with deviation of the body axis in the sagittal plane on autonomous modulations of vegetative nervous system that may reduce biological age of the elderly. Object and methods of the study. The heart rate (HR) parameters in calm inhale and exhale when changing the position of the body in the sagittal plane in 10 elderly (70-72 years) males without apparent disorders of posture and diagnosed cardiovascular diseases were taken as the object of research. Biological feedback equipment that allowed recording the parameters of heart rate in inhale and exhale in real time was used to register HR. When conducting research in strictly vertical position of the body the respiratory arrhythmia was 10±0,32, which according to the biological age scale of A. Smetankin corresponded to the age of 70. The output heart rate parameters in inhale and exhale were taken as control ones. Results of research and their discussion. Data obtained in inhale during the experiment indicates statistically significant (p≤0.001) 5,7% reduction in heart rate with deviation of the body axis backward in the sagittal plane compared to the control one. It can be explained by a decrease in sympathetic section activity and induction of parasympathetic activity of vegetative nervous system. In exhale with deviation of the body axis in the sagittal plane forward and tension in the abdominal muscles, the heart rate is increased on 1,5%, with tension in the abdominal and lower back muscles - on 0,9% compared to the control ones. It can be explained by the activation of the sympathetic section of central nervous system. With deviation of the body axis in the sagittal plane, the heart rate is practically unchangeable. Thus, the results of the experiment indicate that when there is a deviation of the body axis in the sagittal plane both forward and backward, the respiratory arrhythmia is significantly (p≤0,001) reduced compared to the control one. The body tilt in the sagittal plane forward with the tension in the abdominal muscles has the worst impact on the respiratory arrhythmia. At the same time, the respiratory arrhythmia is reduced on 66% compared to the control one. The respiratory arrhythmia is 3,40±0,25, which increases the biological age for almost 20 years and corresponds to the age of 90 years. With the body tilt in the sagittal plane backward and tension in the lower back muscles, the respiratory arrhythmia is 6,00±0,4, which is 40% less compared to the control one and corresponds to the age of 80-90. When the body is tilted in the sagittal plane forward with the tension in the abdominal and lower back muscles, the respiratory arrhythmia is 4,60±0,40, which is 54% compared to the control and corresponds to the age of 80-90. Conclusions. Thus, during the experiment, negative impact of postural postures with deviation of the body axis in the sagittal plane both forward and backward on respiratory arrhythmia was revealed. It was established that postural condition characterized by hypertension of the muscles in the anterior surface of the body with deviation of the body axis in the sagittal plane forward has the most unfavorable impact on the parameters of respiratory arrhythmia. This is the posture taken by a person involuntary in distress situation. In case of staying in this posture, life expectancy decreases for an average of 20 years. The results obtained during the study can be used for individual selection of physical rehabilitation means of the elderly with cardiovascular diseases during the rehabilitation program development, as well as improvement of tools for conducting diaphragmatic breathing training under the control of respiratory arrhythmia parameters. When conducting respiratory training the pressure sensors indicating the appearance of muscle imbalance can be used additionally.

Keywords: respiratory arrhythmia, postural postures, biological age, biological feedback, muscular imbalance

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 281K

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