ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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JMBS 2017, 2(5): 12–15
Experimental Medicine and Morphology

Forensic Medical Definition of the Blood Origin using Laboratory Methods

Gerasymenko O., Gerasymenko K.

The purpose of the article is to examine the number of existing forensic medical modern laboratory methods for blood analyses, which are necessary for the investigatory process. Materials and methods. Prospective methods of blood research and its origin in the obtained samples were determined in the work. Laboratory blood test methods have always been of great importance for forensic medical examinations and for the investigative process as a whole, since they resolve a significant list of issues that arise during a pre-trial investigation. Forensic practice is used as a classic, for a long time already proved it. Among them are: cytological, biochemical methods of determining the composition of blood, hormonal state and enzyme activity, and new methods are being developed that expand diagnostic capabilities, especially for solving the current issue of blood research – its origin definition. It should be noted that special significance concerns those laboratory methods which can determine the regional blood origin. The need to determine the regional origin of blood arises in law enforcement agencies in case of detecting traces resembling blood on a corpse, on a gun or on a scene of an event; in case of suspicion of infanticide, sexual offense, dismemberment of the corpse, etc. Cytological examination can help to solve this problem with the aim of detection of various inclusions in blood traces. For example, in the blood from the nose and respiratory tract – detection of mucus and cells of single-layered multi-row flashing epithelium; in blood of gastric origin are cells of a single-layer cylindrical or prismatic epithelium; in the blood of the intestinal origin – cells of a single-layer cylindrical glandular epithelium and elements of feces. Representatives of law enforcement agencies often have a question about the menstrual origin of detected traces of blood. Unfortunately, forensic medical practice does not have reliable methods for determining the menstrual origin of blood, so this area of expertise needs further development. Previous studies have found out that myometrium stimulates prostaglandins regulate menstrual cycle. Therefore, according to K. Varukha, the determination of prostaglandin F2α in blood proved to be significant for this purpose. During the study, the author indicated that prostaglandin F2α quantity in the menstrual blood of healthy and sick women was diagnostically higher than in capillary blood. Obtained result allows the use of prostaglandin F2α as a blood marker of menstrual origin. In addition, usage of various methods from such branches of science as physics and chemistry proved to be efficient in forensic medicine. One of such methods is crystallography, which is widely used in clinical practice. According to the data of crystallographic (tigraphic) studies of cadaveric blood on the first day after death, it was found out that there is an effect of the regional origin of blood on the morphology of crystals, because crystallograms derived from blood extracts from vessels, left ventricular cavity, right atrium and solid sinuses the brain was different. Therefore, the crystallographic method of determining the regional origin of blood can be quite accurate and promising in the future. To sum up, as a result of current research it was found out that crystallographic method of blood test and the method of quantitative determination of prostaglandin F2α are new and potentially effective in forensic medicine.

Keywords: forensic medicine, laboratory methods of research, determination of blood origin

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