The significant prevalence of visual pathology and visual loss among school-aged children determines the urgency of visual system formation mechanisms and detection of visual exertion of different types and development of actions for the correction of visual disorders. Based on these processes of child visual system formation which are divided into managed and unmanaged and they influence on them. Managed factors are visual environment and living conditions, unmanaged factors present hereditary diseases. Fetal infections, genetic burden, somatic condition and visual exertion present both of groups. The interaction of all these factors leads to the final result as the formation of visual system with definite functional abilities. Each stage of visual system formation has its own type of optimal visual exertion, which is defined by the size of objects recognition, their contrast and coloring. It has been pointed out three variants of visual system formation. The normal visual system is characterized by stable binocular vision, high visual acuity (equal to one or more), presence of accommodation reserves, convergence and fusion are not below the age norms, high contrast sensitivity, good color vision are presented. Children and teenagers with such abilities of visual system are successfully to various visual tasks. The second variant of visual system formation outcome is normal visual system with low visual functions. This is the system which supplies visual acuity equal to one, but on all other indexes doesn’t correspond to modern standards. During clinical examination of children only visual acuity is determined. However, while the high visual acuity is preserved among the children and teenagers, they have very low visual system functional reserves (or even they may be absent), which leads to low visual work ability, fast development of visual fatigue during visual tasks which corresponds to the age. The third possible outcome of visual system formation is pathological visual system. In such system different variants of visual system disorders are possible, this will depend on initial structural-functional condition of its elements, the condition of formation, genetic burden, timeliness of correction and treatment, visual load. During the development of visual disorders correction approaches for children and teenagers vision, there is an influence on managed factors and unmanaged factors influence or partially influence on managed factors. Based on the analysis of the visual function research results of 2582 children, teenagers, it has been found out that during the study the decrease of vision acuity was 30 % of students, 60 % of school graduates had low accommodation reserves, convergent fusion reserves were low at more than a half, and divergent form included 100% of cases. Obtained results formulate the approaches of prevention and correction of visual disorders, which appear among children and teenagers during growth and studying at school.
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