Cardiovascular system is one of the important systems of the body to ensure high performance of athletes. Overexertion of the cardiovascular system is accompanied by serious metabolic disorders in myocarditis that leads to dysfunctional disorders both in the system and in the body of an athlete in general. To prevent prepathological and pathological conditions, proper selection of training loads, a comprehensive control of the functioning of the circulatory system of athletes is required. Persistent increase in cardiac output for a long time during exercise is associated with structural and functional changes in athlete’s heart and thus leads to ECG changes. The aim of the paper is to study the peculiarities of the electrocardiogram in athletes on the stages of long-lasting period of training. Materials and methods. The article summarizes the results of the examination of 53 athletes during the stages of long-lasting period of many training. Examined people were divided into three groups: the first group contained 15 athletes - athletes during the stage of specialized basic training. The second group included 28 athletes - athletes at the stage of preparation for the highest sports achievements. The third group contained 10 athletes – athletes at the stage of maximal realization of individual capabilities. Results. All patients had sinus rhythm; the rhythm was regular in 46 sportsmen. While 26 people mentioned migration source of rhythm within the sinus node (the rhythm was different, but its fluctuations do not exceed 10 beats per minute). During examination the situation of the electrical axis of the heart in the frontal plane was revealed that 8 athletes from the 49 examined ones the axis of the heart rejected the right. Relative turns of the hearts around the transverse axis, one can say the following: in 31 of the examined position of the vertical heart, of which in 14 patients the apex of the heart is displaced posteriorly, in 3 of the examined position of the heart is displaced of the apex posteriorly. The analysis of the atrial tine R showed that a large majority of the patients (42 of the 49 persons), have various changes of P wave, which indicates morphological and functional abnormalities of the atrium (reduction of amplitude, the splitting of P wave, conduction and polarity). Conclusions. The results of the ECG of athletes showed that the examined patients had right inherent in sinus rhythm with a tendency to brachycardia. Approximately 50% of the study the migration of the pacemaker within pasugo-atrial node was observed. Training of athletes leads to an increase in the frequency and severity of these changes. The analysis of the atrial tine R showed the presence of different types of changes: conduction in the atria, the change of polarity, sometimes the presence of hypertrophy of the left atrium. The severity and frequency of the detected changes is proportional to the increase in the intensity and duration of physical activity.
Full text: PDF (Ukr) 189K