The influence of lead compounds on human organism during prenatal and postnatal development is an important topic of discussing for modern scientists. Effects of lead exposure are multifaceted and cause wide range of changes in organs of human body. Particularly sensitive to lead exposure pregnant woman and fetus. So it is important to find ways to protect mother’s and child’s organism from the negative effects of lead. The aim of the research work: to investigate the effect of lead acetate and combination of lead acetate and solutions of iron, gold and silver citrates on the reproductive system and on embryogenesis of experimental animals. Identify possible embriotoxic and teratogenic action of lead acetate in isolated form and in combination with metal citrates. Study was conducted on 120 white mature pregnant female rats Wistar. All animals were divided into groups depending on the investigated substances and the stage at which were planning to remove the fetus from female organism. All rats were divided into 3 groups ( 24-25 animals in each group): Group I - females with12 days pregnant term, n = 24; Group II - females with16 days pregnant term, n = 24; III group - females with 20 days pregnant term, n = 24. Eeach group of pregnant females was divided into five subgroups: 1st subgroup - animals injected with solution of lead acetate at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg, n = 8; 2nd subgroup - animals injected with solution of lead acetate at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg and solution of gold citrate at a dose of 1.5 mcg/kg, n = 8; 3rd subgroup - animals injected with solution of lead acetate at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg and solution of silver citrate at a dose of 2 mcg/kg, n = 8; 4th subgroup - animals injected with solution of lead acetate at a dose of 0.05 mcg/kg and solution of iron citrate at a dose of 1.5 mcg/kg, n = 8; 5th subgroup – control, animals injected with distilled water), n = 8. Rats were mated by the standard scheme. First day of pregnancy was identified from the moment of determining of sperm in vaginal swab. Solutions of heavy metals and nanometals were injected to pregnant female through a tube once a day, at one and the same time. During the experiment observed the general condition, behavior of pregnant females, dynamics of body weight. Operative slaughter was performed on 12th, 16th and 20th day of pregnancy. Ovaries and uterus with embryo were separated. The animals were taken out of the experiment by an overdose of ether anesthesia. Number of corpora lutea was determined in ovaries. Number of live, dead and resorbed fetuses was determined in uterus. Fetuses were studied by macro- and microscopic methods of investigation, weighed. Fetus weight expressed in grams, ovaries, placenta and liver of fetus - in milligrams. 20th day fetuses were placed in Buen solution (Wilson’s method, 1986) for further study of internal organs. Embryotoxic effect of lead acetate and melal citrates was estimated by the next indicators: fertility index, total embryonic mortality, preimplant and postimplant mortality, number of fetuses per 1 female and fetal-placental ratio. Determination of teratogenicity was performed by conventional methods, according to Wilson. Indicators of teratogenic effects is the presence of external anomalies and anomalies of the internal organs. Embryotoxicity of lead acetate was found, which was manifested in a significant reduction in the number of live fetuses by 23% and increase fetal mortality 2.2 times in comparison with control group. The study showed that the combined injection of iron, gold, silver citrates against the background of the effects of lead prevents negative influence of lead acetate on the reproductive system and processes of embryonic development of fetus, which is manifested in the decrease of embryomortality and increasing the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses. In study was shown bioantagonism of silver, gold and iron. The most pronounced bioantogonism was observed in groups of combined influence of lead acetate and silver and gold citrates.
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