Functional asymmetry of bone remodeling level causes increased variability of bone density degree (BD). This study examined the changes of the variability of mandibular alveolar trabecular and cortical DBM during edentulism using clinical three-dimensional (3D) computer tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: 3D CT images were taken from 40 patients of 22–35 years old. They were without any metabolic diseases related to the bone disorders. Randomization of patients was carried out for control group (patients without edentulism) and group of patients with edentia. This group was subdivided into two subgroups: the 1st one was attributed to the patients who didn’t have 1-2 teeth; the 2nd- 3 or more teeth. The state of bone density was defined by investigation of compact and sponger layers in oral and basal parts (CO, SL, CB, respectively) of the alveolar bone of the mandible at the segments of incisive small and large molar teeth on the left and the right of all persons observations by digital cone-beam tomography Point 3D Combi (PointNix, South Korea). The regional variations within each image, as well as percentage (%) differences of the bone density by CT attenuation parameters between target regions (with edentia) and related symmetric regions for each patient were computed and compared. Results: CO, SL, and CB had higher variability in 2nd edentulism subgroup for both sexes than patients in the 1st group. In women of the 1st subgroup with edentulism C thickness decreased on 20% compared to the symmetric spaces while the thickness of the BL varied to the thickness of SL. The maximum thickness of the OC was at left incisive segments, and the minimum - at the level of large molar segments symmetrically on both sides. Conclusions: Modern 3D radiological visualization allows determining early signs of structural changes of the mandibular alveolar bone that already starts after edentulism with one tooth in both sexes. For edentia with 3 or more teeth associated with changes in the thickness of all layers, and can be traced by reduction of external compact plate, while changing internal compact plate is inversely proportional to the thickness of the layer of spongy layer.
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